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Ultimate Ingredient Substitution Guide
Alcohol/Liqueur Substitute the same amount (volume) of liquid in the recipe as originally called for with alcohol. Depending on the recipe, apple juice or chicken broth often makes a good substitution for wine. When using flavored liqueurs, extracts can be substituted if you make up the balance of the liquid with water.For example, if a recipe calls for 2 tablespoons Grand Marnier (orange liqueur) you could use 1/2 teaspoon orange extract and 5 1/2 teaspoons water. Just be sure to get the same level of orange flavor. This may take some experimentation.
Allspice, Ground Substitute 1/4 teaspoon ground cinnamon, 1/2 teaspoon ground cloves and 1/4 teaspoon ground nutmeg for 1 teaspoon ground allspice.
Apple Pie Spice Substitute 2 teaspoons ground cinnamon, 1 teaspoon ground nutmeg and a pinch ground allspice for 1 tablespoon apple pie spice.
Baking Chocolate Substitute 1-ounce unsweetened chocolate for 1-ounce baking chocolate.
Baking Powder Substitute 1/4 teaspoon baking soda, 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar and 1/4 teaspoon corn starch for 1 teaspoon baking powder.
Baking Soda -There is no recommended substitute for baking soda.
Barbecue Sauce Substitute 1 cup ketchup and 1/2 to 1 teaspoon liquid smoke seasoning for 1 cup barbecue sauce.
Beef Broth Substitute 1 cup boiling water and 1 teaspoon instant beef bouillon granules (or 1 bouillon cube) for 1 cup broth.
Bouquet Garni Substitute 1/2 teaspoon dried parsley flakes, 1/2 teaspoon dried thyme leave and 1 bay leaf (crushed) for 1 teaspoon bouquet garni.
Breadcrumbs Substitute 3 to 4 slices oven-dried bread crushed for 1 cup breadcrumbs.Substitute 3/4 cup cracker crumbs for 1 cup breadcrumbs.Substitute 1 1/4 cups croutons or stuffing cubes, crushed for 1 cup breadcrumbs.
Broth, Beef or Chicken Substitute 1 cup boiling water and 1 teaspoon instant bouillon granules (or 1 bouillon cube) for 1 cup broth.
Butter Substitute unsalted butter for salted butter in any recipe. It is NOT necessary to add salt. Substitute whipped butter, based on weight, not volume for stick butter. Substitute stick margarine made from vegetable oil in most baking applications except in pastry recipes. Using margarine will produce a softer dough than one made with butter, and may not have the same flavor as butter.
Buttermilk Substitute 1 tablespoon vinegar or lemon juice plus enough milk to equal 1 cup for 1 cup of buttermilk. Let stand 5 minutes.Substitute 1/2 cup plain yogurt plus 1/2 cup milk for 1 cup buttermilk.
Cardamom, ground Substitute 1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon and 1/2 teaspoon ground ginger for 1 teaspoon ground cardamom. (Flavor may vary.)
Chicken Broth Substitute 1 cup boiling water and 1 teaspoon instant chicken bouillon granules (or 1 bouillon cube) for 1 cup broth.
Chocolate Chips, Semi-Sweet Substitute 6 ounces semi-sweet baking chocolate, chopped, for 1 cup (6 ounces) semi-sweet chocolate chips.
Chocolate, Bittersweet Substitute 1 (1-ounce) square semi-sweet baking chocolate for 1 (1-ounce) square bittersweet baking chocolate.
Chocolate, Semi-Sweet Substitute 3 tablespoons chocolate chips for 1 (1-ounce) square semi-sweet baking chocolate.Substitute 1 (1-ounce) square bittersweet baking chocolate for 1 (1-ounce) square semi-sweet bittersweet baking chocolate.Substitute 1 (1-ounce) square unsweetened baking chocolate and 1 tablespoon granulated sugar for 1 (1-ounce) square semi-sweet baking chocolate.Substitute 6 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa powder, 7 tablespoons sugar and 1/4 cup butter, margarine or shortening for 6 ounces semi-sweet baking chocolate.
Chocolate, Sweet Baking (German’s)Substitute 3 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa powder, 4 teaspoons sugar and 1 tablespoon butter, shortening or vegetable oil for1 – ounce German’s sweet baking chocolate.
Chocolate, Unsweetened Substitute 3 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa and 1 tablespoon butter, margarine or shortening for 1- ounce unsweetened baking chocolate.
Chocolate, White Substitute 1- ounce milk chocolate for 1 ounce white chocolate. (Color and flavor will vary.)
Cinnamon, Ground Substitute 1/2 teaspoon ground allspice or 1 teaspoon ground cardamom for 1 teaspoon ground cinnamon.
Cocoa, Unsweetened Substitute equal amount of Dutch-processed cocoa for unsweetened cocoa.
Coffee Substitute 1 cup hot water and 2 teaspoons instant coffee granules or espresso powder for 1 cup strong brewed coffee.
Cooking Sprays, No-stick Substitute for shortening to prepare baking sheets and baking pans.
Corn Syrup, Dark Substitute 1 cup light corn syrup for 1 cup dark corn syrup. (Flavor will be affected somewhat.)Substitute 3/4 cup light corn syrup and 1/4 cup light molasses for 1 cup dark corn syrup.
Corn Syrup, Light Substitute 1 cup dark corn syrup for 1 cup light corn syrup (Flavor will be affected somewhat.)Substitute 1 1/4 cups granulated sugar dissolved in 1/4 cup hot water or liquid used in recipe for 1 cup light corn syrup.
Cornstarch Substitute 3 tablespoons all-purpose flour for 1 tablespoon cornstarch.
Cream (20% fat) (Coffee Cream) Substitute 3 tablespoons melted butter and whole milk to equal 1 cup for 1 cup cream (20% fat) (coffee cream)
Cream (40% fat) (Heavy Whipping Cream) Substitute 1/3 cup melted butter and 2/3 cup whole milk for 1 cup whipping cream. This substitution can be used when not for whipping.
Cream of Tartar There is no recommended substitution for cream of tartar.
Cream, Half & Half Substitute 3/4 cup whole milk and 1/4 cup whipping cream for 1 cup half & half.Substitute 1 tablespoon melted butter and enough milk to equal 1 cup for 1 cup half & half.
Egg Whites Substitute 2 teaspoons meringue powder and 3 tablespoons water for1 large egg white.Substitute powdered egg whites for most recipes requiring egg whites. Follow directions on powdered egg whites container.Substitute 2 tablespoons liquid egg whites for 1 egg white in applications except meringue and angel food cake recipes.
Eggs Substitute 1/4 cup refrigerated egg product for 1 whole egg.
Espresso Instant Coffee Powder Substitute 2 to 3 teaspoons instant coffee granules for 1 tablespoon espresso coffee powder.Substitute 2 1/2 tablespoons instant cappuccino drink mix for 1 tablespoon espresso coffee powder.
Flour, All-purpose Substitute 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons cake flour for 1 cup all-purpose flour.Substitute self-rising flour minus the salt in yeast bread recipes for all-purpose flour.Substitute self-rising flour minus the salt and baking powder in quick bread recipes for all-purpose flour.Substitute 3/4 cup all-purpose flour and 1/4 cup soy flour for 1 cup all-purpose flour in recipes such as quick breads and pancakes to reduce the carbohydrates.
Flour, All-purpose (as thickener)Substitute 1/2 tablespoon cornstarch, potato starch, rice starch, arrowroot starch, or 1 tablespoon quick-cooking tapioca for 1 tablespoon all-purpose flour.
Flour, Bread Substitute 1 cup all-purpose flour plus 2 teaspoons gluten flour for 1 cup unsifted bread flour.
Flour, Cake Substitute 1 cup minus 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour for 1 cup cake flour.
Flour, Gluten-Free Blend Substitute Gluten-Free Flour Blend for regular flour. To make flour blend, combine 2 cups rice flour, 2/3 cup potato starch, 1/3 cup tapioca flour and 1 teaspoon xanthan gum. Use appropriate amount for recipe; store remainder in container with tight-fitting lid.
Flour, Pastry Substitute 2/3 cup all-purpose flour and 1/3 cup cake flour for 1 cup pastry flour.
Flour, Self-Rising Substitute 1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder and 1/4 teaspoon salt for 1 cup self-rising flour.
Flour, Whole Wheat Substitute 1 cup minus 3 tablespoons all-purpose flour and 3 tablespoons wheat germ for 1 cup whole wheat flour.Substitute 1/2 cup whole wheat flour and 1/2 cup all-purpose flour for 1 cup whole wheat flour.
Garlic Substitute 1/2 teaspoon instant minced garlic or 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder for 1 clove minced garlic.
Garlic, Salt Substitute 1/4 teaspoon garlic powder and 3/4 teaspoon salt for 1 teaspoon garlic salt.
Ginger, Fresh Substitute 1/8 teaspoon ground ginger for 1 tablespoon minced or grated fresh ginger.
Ginger, ground Substitute 1 teaspoon ground allspice for 1 teaspoon ground ginger. (Flavor will vary.)
Half & Half Substitute 3/4 cup whole milk and 1/4 cup heavy whipping cream for 1 cup half & half.Substitute 1 tablespoon melted unsalted butter and enough whole milk to equal 1 cup for 1 cup half & half.
Herbs Substitute 1 teaspoon dried herbs for 1 tablespoon fresh herbs.
Honey Substitute 1 1/4 cups granulated sugar plus 1/4 cup liquid (use whatever liquid is called for in the recipe) for 1 cup honey.Substitute 1/2 cup granulated sugar and 3/4 cup maple syrup, light or dark corn syrup or light molasses for 1 cup honey.
Italian Seasoning Substitute 1 teaspoon dried oregano leaves, 1/2 teaspoon dried basil leaves and 1/2 teaspoon dried thyme leaves for 2 teaspoons Italian seasoning.
Ketchup Substitute 1/2 cup tomato sauce and 2 tablespoons sugar and 1 tablespoon vinegar for 1/2 cup ketchup.
Lemon Juice Substitute 1/2 teaspoon vinegar for 1 teaspoon lemon juice.
Maple Syrup Substitute 1 cup honey for 1 cup pure maple syrup.Substitute 1 cup minus 3 tablespoons light molasses for 1 cup pure maple syrup.
Marshmallow Creme Substitute 16 large or 160 miniature marshmallows plus 2 teaspoons light corn syrup for 1 cup marshmallow creme. Place in double boiler or stainless steel bowl over simmering water; stir until smooth.
Marshmallows Substitute 10 miniature marshmallows for 1 large marshmallow.Substitute 8 to 10 large marshmallows for 1 cup miniature marshmallows.
Milk, Evaporated Substitute 1 cup half & half or whole milk for 1 cup evaporated milk.
Milk, Sweetened Condensed Substitute 1 cup instant nonfat dry milk plus 2/3 cup granulated sugar, 1/2 cup boiling water and 3 tablespoons melted butter for 1 (14-ounce) can sweetened condensed milk.
Milk, Whole Substitute 1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water for 1 cup whole milk.Substitute 1 cup fat free skim milk plus 2 teaspoons melted butter for 1 cup whole milk.NOTE: Whole milk is higher in total fat than low-fat milk. If a baking recipe calls for whole milk, you may be able to substitute a low-fat milk variety like fat free, 1% or 2% fat. Be cautious about substituting fat free milk in pudding, custard and sauce recipes.These recipes rely on the dairy fat for added texture and flavor. Baked items such as cakes and cookies can usually tolerate the use of a lower fat milk.
Molasses Substitute 1 cup honey, dark corn syrup or maple syrup for 1 cup molasses. (Flavor will be affected.)Substitute 1 cup light molasses for 1 cup dark molasses.Substitute 3/4 cup light or dark brown sugar dissolved in 1/4 cup hot water (or liquid in recipe) for 1 cup molasses.
Mustard, Dry Substitute 1 tablespoon prepared mustard minus 1 teaspoon liquid from recipe for 1 teaspoon dry mustard.
Mustard, Prepared Substitute 1 teaspoon dry mustard plus 1 to 2 teaspoons vinegar or water for 1 tablespoon prepared mustard.
Nutmeg, Ground Substitute 1 teaspoon ground allspice or 1 – 1 1/2 teaspoons ground cinnamon or 1 teaspoon ground mace for 1 teaspoon ground nutmeg.
Oats Old-fashioned oats and quick-cooking oats can be used interchangeably in baking recipes.
Oil Substitute 1 cup melted butter, margarine or shortening for 1 cup oil. (Recipe results may vary. Texture and appearance may be affected.)
Onion Substitute 1/4 cup instant minced onion or flaked onion for 1 cup (1 medium) chopped onion.Substitute 1 teaspoon onion powder for 1 cup (1 medium) chopped onion.
Orange Juice Substitute 3/4 cup water plus 1/4 cup frozen orange juice concentrate for 1 cup orange juice.
Poultry Seasoning Substitute 1/4 teaspoon ground thyme plus 3/4 teaspoon ground sage for 1 teaspoon poultry seasoning.
Preserves Substitute 1/4 cup jelly for 1/4 cup preserves. Consistency will be thinner with jelly.
Pumpkin Substitute cooked fresh sugar or pie pumpkin for an equal amount of canned pumpkin. When cooking pumpkin select a sugar pie pumpkin. This variety of pumpkin is small and sweet, with dark orange-colored flesh. A 3-pound fresh pumpkin will yield approximately 1 cup cooked pumpkin. To cook fresh pumpkin: Heat oven to 375° F. Place small whole pumpkin onto ungreased baking sheet. Poke top of pumpkin several times to let steam escape while baking. Bake, uncovered, for 45 to 60 minutes or until fork tender. Cool 30 minutes. Cut pumpkin in half. Scoop out seeds and discard or roast separately for a snack. Scrape pumpkin flesh from skin into food processor bowl fitted with a metal blade. Puree pulp in food processor or blender or mash thoroughly with a potato masher. Place pumpkin puree in a strainer and drain at least 30 minutes to make sure fresh cooked pumpkin becomes as thick as canned pumpkin. It is very important to remove as much moisture as possible. Refrigerate or freeze remaining puree.
Pumpkin Pie Spice Substitute 1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon plus 1/4 teaspoon ground ginger, 1/4 teaspoon ground nutmeg and 1/8 teaspoon ground cloves for 1 teaspoon pumpkin pie spice.
Raisins Substitute equal amount of other chopped dried fruit for raisins. Golden raisins, dark raisins, dried cranberries and currants can be used interchangeably in baking recipes.
Rice Substitute 1 cup uncooked brown rice for 1 cup uncooked white rice.
Salt Substitute Kosher salt, iodized salt or sea salt for table salt in baking.
Shortening Substitute 1 cup butter or margarine for 1 cup regular or butter-flavored shortening.DO NOT substitute vegetable oil for shortening when recipe calls for melted shortening.
Sour Cream Substitute 1 cup plain yogurt for 1 cup sour cream.
Sugar, Dark Brown Substitute 1 cup firmly packed light brown sugar plus 1 tablespoon molasses for 1 cup dark brown sugar.Substitute 1 cup granulated sugar plus 2 to 3 tablespoons molasses for 1 cup dark brown sugar.
Sugar, Granulated Substitute 1 cup firmly packed brown sugar for 1 cup granulated sugar. (Flavor will be affected somewhat.)
Sugar, Light Brown Substitute 1/2 cup firmly packed dark brown sugar and 1/2 cup granulated sugar for 1 cup firmly packed light brown sugar. (Slight flavor differences will occur.)Substitute 1 cup granulated sugar plus 2 tablespoons molasses for 1 cup light brown sugar.
Sugar, Powdered (Confectioner’s)Substitute 1 cup granulated sugar plus 1/8 teaspoon cornstarch processed in a food processor fitted with a metal blade for 1 cup powdered sugar.
Sweetened Condensed Milk Substitute 1 cup instant nonfat dry milk plus 2/3 cup granulated sugar, 1/2 cup boiling water and 3 tablespoons melted butter for 1 (14-ounce) can sweetened condensed milk.
Tomato Juice Substitute 1/2 cup tomato sauce and 1/2 cup water for 1 cup tomato juice.
Tomato Paste Substitute 1/2 cup tomato sauce for 1/4 cup tomato paste. Cook until sauce is reduced to 1/4 cup.
Tomato Puree Substitute 2/3 cup water and 1/3 cup tomato paste for 1 cup tomato puree.
Tomato Sauce Substitute 1/2 cup tomato paste plus 1/2 cup water can be substituted for 1 cup tomato sauce.
Vanilla Bean Substitute 2 to 3 teaspoons vanilla extract for 1 8-inch vanilla bean.
Vanilla Extract Substitute imitation vanilla flavoring for vanilla extract.Substitute other flavorings, such as almond, peppermint, rum or lemon for vanilla extract (flavor differences will occur.)
Vegetable Oil Substitute equal amounts melted butter or margarine for vegetable oil.
Vinegar Substitute 2 teaspoons lemon juice for 1 teaspoon vinegar.
Whipping Cream Substitute 1/3 cup melted butter and 2/3 cup whole milk for 1 cup whipping cream.
White Chocolate Substitute 1- ounce milk chocolate for 1 ounce white chocolate. (Color and flavor will vary.)
Wine Substitute 1/2 cup fruit juice for 1/2 cup wine in desserts.Substitute 1/2 cup chicken broth for 1/2 cup wine in savory recipes.
Yeast Substitute 1 (.0.6-ounce) cake of compressed yeast for 1 (1/4-ounce) packet active dry yeast.Substitute 2 1/4 teaspoons quick rise, bread machine yeast or instant dry yeast for 1 (1/4-ounce) packet active dry yeast.
Yogurt Substitute 1 cup buttermilk or sour cream for 1 cup yogurt.